Social Relationship Transformations During Kilimanjaro Treks, Since 2005 To 2019

  • Michel Raspaud Laboratoire SENS (EA 3742), Universit√© Grenoble Alpes CS 40700 - 38058 Cedex 9, France


Adventure tourism developed during the 1970s and 1980s and attracted a wealthy clientele. Trekking combined quickly with ascent of low difficult summits, and the first specialized travel agencies are created. After the Alps, where the logistics of travel is easy to organize, other destinations, extra-European, are issued in tourism. During the 1990s, this market is booming and many agencies were created. It is in this context that the great summits of the continents have become tourist destinations: Mt-Blanc, Kilimanjaro, Aconcagua, Everest, etc. The study is based on the participation in four treks in Kilimanjaro from 2005 to 2019. It is a question of analyzing the management, by the agencies, of the relations between Western clienteles and the local workers, within the framework of an intercultural situation. It highlights how, during this period, the management of the tip issue evolved from the adventure field to the written formulation / formalization.

How to Cite
RASPAUD, Michel. Social Relationship Transformations During Kilimanjaro Treks, Since 2005 To 2019. GYMNASIUM, [S.l.], v. XX, n. 2, p. 139-147, dec. 2019. ISSN 2344-5645. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 27 jan. 2021. doi:

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